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The tricolour flag of the Irish Republic was illegal, as was the Irish Republican party, Sinn Fein (from 1956 until 1974), though it organised in Northern Ireland under the names ‘Republican’ or ‘Republican Clubs’.However most nationalists in the North traditionally voted for the moderate Nationalist Party.Its power was buttressed by a close association with the Protestant fraternal organisations such as the Orange Order.
There was also a lack of official recognition of Irish nationality in Northern Ireland.
The Irish language and Irish history were not taught in state schools.
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Another angle of the conflict was sectarian or communal violence between the majority unionist or loyalist Protestant population and the minority Catholic or nationalist one.
This was manifested in inter-communal rioting, house burning and expulsion of minorities from rival areas as well as lethal violence including shooting and bombing.In the latest in our series of overviews, a summary of ‘The Troubles’, by John Dorney The Northern Ireland conflict was a thirty year bout of political violence, low intensity armed conflict and political deadlock within the six north-eastern counties of Ireland that formed part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.It was a complex conflict with multiple armed and political actors.Catholics also complained of discrimination in employment and the allocation of social housing, and also protested that their community was the main target of the Special Powers Act which allowed for detention without trial.The armed police forces, the Royal Ulster Constabulary and especially the Ulster Special Constabulary or ‘B Specials’, were almost wholly Protestant and unionist in ethos.Arising from the loyalist community were a number of paramilitary groups, notably the Ulster Defence Association (UDA) and the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF).Loyalist violence’s stated aim was to halt republican violence against the state but in practice their main target was Catholic civilians.This is a superb site which we will be using a lot throughout the course.It contains copies of original documents relating to the course and also has chapters and articles on various aspects of the ‘troubles’ from different viewpoints.Northern Ireland was created in 1920 under the Government of Ireland Act, due to Ulster unionist lobbying to be excluded from Home Rule for Ireland.Northern Ireland comprised six north eastern counties of Ireland in the province of Ulster. w=640 640w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" data-recalc-dims="1" / Northern Ireland’s existence was confirmed under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, that ended the Irish War of Independence.