Remember that the theory/line of inquiry selected will inform the statement of the problem, rationale for the study, questions and hypotheses, selection of instruments, and choice of methods.
Ultimately, findings will be discussed in terms of how they relate to the theory/line of inquiry that undergirds the study.
The operational null is generally the preferred form of hypothesis-writing.a form that states the hypothesis you will accept if the null hypothesis is rejected, stated in terms of theoretical constructs.
In other words, this is usually what you hope the results will show.
The practice of using hypotheses was derived from using the scientific method in social science inquiry.
They have philosophical advantages in statistical testing, as researchers should be and tend to be conservative and cautious in their statements of conclusions (Armstrong, 1974).a no difference form in terms of theoretical constructs.For example, There is no relationship between support services and academic persistence of nontraditional-aged college women.Or, There is no difference in school achievement for high and low self-regulated students.a no difference form in terms of the operation required to test the hypothesis.The purpose statement should provide a specific and accurate synopsis of the overall purpose of the study (Locke, Spirduso, & Silverman, 1987, p. If the purpose is not clear to the writer, it cannot be clear to the reader.Clearly identify and define the central concepts or ideas of the study.In quantitative studies, one uses theory deductively and places it toward the beginning of the plan for a study. One thus begins the study advancing a theory, collects data to test it, and reflects on whether the theory was confirmed or disconfirmed by the results in the study.The theory becomes a framework for the entire study, an organizing model for the research questions or hypotheses for the data collection procedure (Creswell, 1994, pp. In qualitative inquiry, the use of theory and of a line of inquiry depends on the nature of the investigation.Statements of this sort are usually taken as indications that the writer is not really familiar with the literature.In a proposal, the literature review is generally brief and to the point.Be judicious in your choice of exemplarsthe literature selected should be pertinent and relevant (APA, 2001). They are most often used in qualitative inquiry, although their use in quantitative inquiry is becoming more prominent.Select and reference only the more appropriate citations. Committees may want a section outlining your search strategythe procedures you used and sources you investigated (e.g., databases, journals, test banks, experts in the field) to compile your literature review. are relevant to normative or census type research (How many of them are there? Hypotheses are relevant to theoretical research and are typically used only in quantitative inquiry.