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In addition, numerous businesses opened in downtown Durham in the Parrish Street area.In 1899, North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company opened in Durham; it was the first African-American insurance company, and it has since become a nationally renowned corporation.Although the American Tobacco Company no longer exists in Durham, the city and county saw great economic growth spurred by the innovation of the African-American population.
After moving the company into a Durham factory, Washington provided a good foundation for his progeny. Duke, Washington’s son, expanded the company throughout the nation.
James, along with James Bonsack, developed a small machine that rolled and manufactured cigarettes easier and at a much cheaper cost.
The Carraway Library was named in honor of Gertrude Sprague Carraway (1896-1993) who led the effort to restore Tryon Palace and served as its first director.
For over forty years, the Carraway Library has been a continuing resource for Tryon Palace staff, community members and visiting researchers.
The Library consists of over 5,000 secondary sources.
Subjects include regional and national history, fine and decorative arts, material culture, horticulture, architecture and topics related to the field of public history.The town was incorporated in 1869, and the county was established by the state legislature in 1881.Bahama and Rougemont are other communities within the county, and Chapel Hill spills over into parts of Durham.After the Civil War, the tobacco industry dominated the city’s economy.Cameron, Hardscrabble, and Leigh were the largest plantations within Durham in the early and middle nineteenth century.German, English, and Scotch-Irish settlers were the first Europeans to inhabit Durham.Most of the families who sought to dwell in Durham received land grants from the Earl of Granville, the Lord Proprietor of the Carolinas.Yet, once the War Between the States concluded, the plantations vanished.Both black and white farmers searched for an easy crop to grow and they found tobacco to be the answer.The Eno lived on the eastern side of Durham, and John Lawson encountered the tribe upon his survey of early North Carolina.Like the Occaneechi, the Eno moved with the Catawba tribe to live in South Carolina as the white man moved into the region.