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Finally, it surveys the other economic and legal instruments currently stimulating innovation and how legal regulations and governmental policy could be modified to create an optimal pro-innovation environment.The conclusions include short legal and factual background of innovation in the Polish health sector, the summarized results of the conducted analysis and final comments concerning the level and culture of innovation within the examined industry.We analyze Polish immigration in the context of the 2004 enlargement of the European Union and find a positive and significant spillover effect of the immigrants on the number of local inventors in German counties in 2001-2010.
METS related innovation seem the driving force of this mechanism.
In contrast, countries specializing in mining industries are found to be slower in reacting to price changes.
Using this newly-created database we identified at the basis of the structural change a switch away from refining technologies into exploration and environmental technologies probably explained by the took over of the so-called 4th Industrial Revolution. Giulia Valacchi; Publication year: 2019 This paper analyses the evolution of innovation in the mining sector and how this innovation responds to the economic environment, in particular to changes in commodity prices.
The types of actors active in the mining innovation also changed across time: there are now many more individuals, research centers and universities innovating in mining and relatively less companies. For this purpose, we combine commodity price data with innovation data as proxied by patent filings extracted from a novel unit record database containing comprehensive patent and firm level data for the mining sector from 1970 to 2015.
Our results differ from findings for high-skilled migration to the United States, which is particularly interesting as Polish immigration to Germany was not based on selection by qualification in our period of analysis.
Submarine Trademarks Economic Research Working Paper No. Myers, Andrea Fosfuri, Carsten Fink, Christian Helmers; Publication year: 2018 Companies use trademarks to protect their brands from outright imitation or competition by confusingly similar products.It is based on data collated from an online survey of resident METS and on semi-structured interviews of executives from mining companies and suppliers, including two universities.The main conclusion is that, although METS appear to be innovative in relation to the mining sector and the economy as a whole, only a few use intellectual property rights (IPRs) to protect their innovations.The papers included in this Series typically report on research in progress and are circulated in a timely manner for discussion and comment. Giulia Valacchi; Publication year: 2019 Traditionally, the mining sector has been considered a slow innovator compared to other industries, like the manufacturing or pharmaceutical industries.The views expressed in them are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of WIPO or its member states. However, we observe an upsurge in the innovation activity of the mining industry in the first half of the 2000s.The survey examines which areas of the Polish health sector are most innovative, the understanding of innovation that prevails in the sector, and the characteristics of R&D activities carried out there.Subsequently, the study explores the general impact of intellectual property, and particularly of patent law on innovation, in the Polish health sector.Finally, the country composition in the pool of mining innovation activity has radically changed with the appearance of China on the global scene starting from early 2000. We include patents registered both by mining companies and mining equipment, technology and service (METS) firms.Innovation in the Mining Sector and Cycles in Commodity Prices Economic Research Working Paper No. With a multi-country panel analysis, we find that innovation in the mining sector is cyclical.The analysis of technology transfer among firms and to other mining industry stakeholders, mainly universities, drew on import contracts and highlighted the role played by foreign METS. A., Brazil’s largest mining enterprise, has been included, with emphasis on Vale’s strategies to mitigate external challenges and to meet technological needs through innovation.Innovation in the Polish health sector: A quality assessment Economic Research Working Paper No.