Citations beginning with names and those beginning with titles are to be alphabetized together.
Numbers in titles are treated as though they have been spelled out. "UNC Building Projects Advance: $491 Million Gets Initial House Nod." Raleigh News & Observer, July 15, 2003.
This guide aims to explain the general principles by giving details of the two most commonly used formats, the 'author, date' system and footnotes or endnotes.
Once you have understood the principles common to all referencing systems you should be able to apply the specific rules set by your own department.
There are many different referencing conventions in common use.
Each department will have its own preferred format, and every journal or book editor has a set of 'house rules'.It is essential that you acknowledge your debt to the sources of data, research and ideas on which you have drawn by including references to, and full details of, these sources in your work.Referencing your work allows the reader: Whenever you read or research material for your writing, make sure that you include in your notes, or on any photocopied material, the full publication details of each relevant text that you read.These details should include: For particularly important points, or for parts of texts that you might wish to quote word for word, also include in your notes the specific page reference.* Please note that the publisher of a book should not be confused with the printer.Other useful guides: Effective note making, Avoiding plagiarism.When you are writing an essay, report, dissertation or any other form of academic writing, your own thoughts and ideas inevitably build on those of other writers, researchers or teachers.As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in each main section or paragraph.Look at the ways in which your sources use references in their own work, and for further guidance consult the companion guide Avoiding Plagiarism.The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation.If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below. comm.' stands for personal communication; no further information is usually required.