Third World governments rarely use auctions [for concession, which, when done honestly, removes the opportunity for buyers to bribe sellers]. Hence strategic and diplomatic consideration enter the calculation: the government will want to give the concession to a company backed by a government which it believes will be helpful to it in its international relations—and in supplying it with arms and mercenaries. Once negotiation is adopted as the means of allocating concessions, the dominant incentive is for bidders to engage competitively in the bribery of local rulers and apparent tendency for bribery, which is intense in the business of seeking resource concession and selling arms, to become a secret habit of western firms and politicians that infects their domestic political behavior.It would be wrong to deny that corruption is indispensable in the obtaining of drilling concession, though that does not mean that one should not try to stop it. Tarallo [a senior Elf Manager] is unfortunately right when he says that all petrol companies use it… In exchange, Paris could count on their support in its diplomatic battles and could offer captive markets to French firms…This was put in place during the presidency of General de Gaulle and has been maintained by subsequent governments regardless of party…Looked at today the picture is not glorious.A former colonial power has taught corruption to its African clients—who were willing pupils—and there is nothing to persuade us that they have not rewarded their friends in Paris……Corruption is both a major cause and a result of poverty around the world.It occurs at all levels of society, from local and national governments, civil society, judiciary functions, large and small businesses, military and other services and so on.Transparency International https:// Global movement partnering with government, business and civil society to put effective measures in place to tackle corruption. Corruption Perceptions Index Anti-corruption Knowledge Hub Global Corruption Barometer National Integrity System Assessment Carey, John M. “Transparency Versus Collective Action: Fujimori’s Legacy and the Peruvian Congress”. Meanwhile western firms paid rulers to obtain concessions to extract oil and minerals.The business of obtaining oil and mineral concessions has aways been conducive to the use of bribes, omissions, gifts, and favors, and remains so since there are huge (i.e.It creates a major distortion of trade as well as undermining the democratic development of emerging markets.ICAEW have come together with other professional bodies spanning law and accountancy today pledged to continue their work to tackle bribery, corruption, tax-evasion, money laundering and the financing of terrorism as leaders from across the world gather in London for an anti-corruption summit. This is why professional bodies work with national and international regulators and law enforcement to support our members' efforts to combat all forms of financial crime.