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Bullying behavior affects not only the children and youth who are bullied, who bully, and who are both bullied and bully others but also bystanders to bullying incidents. Given the myriad situations in which bullying can occur and the many people who may be involved, identifying effective prevention programs and policies is challenging, and it is unlikely that any one approach will be ap- propriate in all situations.
Over the past few decades, venues where bullying behavior occurs have expanded with the advent of the Internet, chat rooms, instant messaging, social media, and other forms of digital electronic communication. Concepts of bullying: Developmental and cultural aspects. The association of suicide and bullying in childhood to young adulthood: A review of cross-sectional and longitudinal research findings.
These modes of communication have provided a new communal avenue for bullying. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 20(2), 101-112.
The author described bullying behavior, attempted to delineate causes and cures for the tormenting of others, and called for additional research (Koo, 2007).
Nearly a century later, Dan Olweus, a Swedish research professor of psychology in Norway, conducted an intensive study on bullying (Olweus, 1978). Examining the differential roles of medium, publicity, and anonymity for the perceived severity of bullying. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
The study received financial support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Health Resources and Services Administration, the Highmark Foundation, the National Institute of Justice, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Semi J. Begun Foundation, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
The full statement of task for the committee is presented in Box 1-1. The committee can also draw upon research in other areas of victimization to inform the core questions of this study. A particular focus on children who are most at risk of peer victimization—i.e., those with high risk factors in combination with few protective factors—such as children with disabilities, poly-victims, LGBT youth, and children living in poverty will be included in the study. Vaillancourt, T., Trinh, V., Mc Dougall, P., Duku, E., Cunningham, L., Cunningham, C., Hymel, S., and Short, K. Optimizing population screening of bullying in school-aged children. Bullying behavior is evident as early as preschool, although it peaks during the middle school years (Currie et al., 2012; Vaillancourt et al., 2010). It can occur in diverse social settings, including classrooms, school gyms and cafeterias, on school buses, and online. Individual and contextual factors for bullying and peer victimization: Implications for prevention. Vlachou, M., Andreou, E., Botsoglou, K., and Didaskalou, E. Bully/victim problems among preschool children: A review of current research evidence. Even the definition of bullying varies among both researchers and lawmakers, though it generally includes physical and verbal behavior, behavior leading to social isolation, and behavior that uses digital communications technology (cyberbullying). This report adopts the term “bullying behavior,” which is frequently used in the research field, to cover all of these behaviors. The efforts of Olweus brought awareness to the issue and motivated other professionals to conduct their own research, thereby expanding and contributing to knowledge of bullying behavior. Since Olweus’s early work, research on bullying has steadily increased (see Farrington and Ttofi, 2009; Hymel and Swearer, 2015). The Committee on the Biological and Psychosocial Effects of Peer Victimization: The Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council (NRC), in conjunction with the NRC’s Committee on Law and Justice will convene a committee of experts to conduct a consensus study that will produce a comprehensive report on the state of the science on: (1) the biological and psychosocial consequences of peer victimization and (2) the risk and protective factors that either increase or decrease peer victimization behavior and consequences. Given the limited research on bullying specifically and potential to learn from other areas of victimization, the study committee will review the relevant research and practice-based literatures on peer victimization, including physical, verbal, relational, and cyber, from early childhood through adolescence. Relationship between peer victimization, cyberbullying, and suicide in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis.