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The VESPR Model explains this pertaining to electrons.
It has the same number of protons ( ive charge) as it does electrons (- ive charge).
If it does then the charges cancel each other out, making a neutral atom.
This means that in a neutral atom the number of Protons = the number of Electrons.
Like chargers repel each other, just like magnets do.
The formal charge on bromine in the molecule HBr is -1.
There are a number of rules for assigning the formal charge to an atom.
The formal charge of HNO3 is 0 because the charge on NO3 is -1 and the charge on H is always 1.
formal charge of an atom in a bond is measured by the number of electrons in it's last energy an example Nitrogen has 5 electrons in it's last energy when calculating the net formal charge, if the number of electrons in the last energy level of any atom increases,as electrons have…
In this way, they are each as far from each other as possible.
Because an atom has the same number of protons and electrons which both have equal but opposite charges (electron relative charge= -1, proton relative charge= 1, neutron relative charge= 0.) the atom as a whole has no electrical charge as both the electrons and the protons' charges balance each other out.