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When a computer sends traffic over the Internet to a server or another computer, it uses an IP address to identify the server or remote computer, and a port number to identify the process on the server or computer that receives the data (If an IP address is like a street address, a port number is like an apartment number within that street address).
FTP control is handled on TCP port 21 and its data transfer can use TCP port 20 as well as dynamic ports depending on the specific configuration.
Telnet is the primary method used to manage network devices at the command level.
It is a 16-bit number (0 to 65535) which differentiates one application from another on end systems.
The two most popular Internet transport protocols, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and other less known protocols use port numbers for communication sessions (source and destination port numbers in conjunction with the source and destination IP addresses).
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One of the many fundamental things to know as a network engineer is the function and port number used by a number of common services as well as many that are typically implemented during the course of a network engineer’s career.
Other programs are assigned port numbers dynamically for each connection.
The IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) keeps a list of well-known ports.
In summary, understanding the concept of ports in computer networking is very vital for system and network administrators.
You can as well go through this netstat guide with simple, precise and well explained examples.