Arne Naess Deep Ecology Essay

Arne Naess Deep Ecology Essay-71
Næss states that "the right of all forms [of life] to live is a universal right which cannot be quantified.No single species of living being has more of this particular right to live and unfold than any other species." This metaphysical idea is elucidated in Warwick Fox's claim that we and all other beings are "aspects of a single unfolding reality"..

often use Deep Ecology for their political ideology.

The phrase deep ecology was coined by the Norwegian philosopher Arne Næss in 1973, and he helped give it a theoretical foundation.

It is wrong when it tends otherwise." Deep ecology offers a philosophical basis for environmental advocacy which may, in turn, guide human activity against perceived self-destruction.

Deep ecology holds that the science of ecology shows that ecosystems can absorb only limited change by humans or other dissonant influences.

In relation to the Judeo-Christian tradition, Næss offers the following criticism: "The arrogance of stewardship [as found in the Bible] consists in the idea of superiority which underlies the thought that we exist to watch over nature like a highly respected middleman between the Creator and Creation." in which however he also offered as an alternative Christian view of man's relation to nature that of Saint Francis of Assisi, who he says spoke for the equality of all creatures, in place of the idea of man's domination over creation.

Drawing upon the Buddhist tradition is the work of Joanna Macy.Macy, working as an anti-nuclear activist in USA, found that one of the major impediments confronting the activists' cause was the presence of unresolved emotions of despair, grief, sorrow, anger and rage.The denial of these emotions led to apathy and disempowerment.They refer to Fritjof Capra's The Tao of Physics and The Turning Point for their characterization of how the new physics leads to metaphysical and ecological views of interrelatedness which according to Capra should make deep ecology a framework for future human societies.In their book, Devall and Sessions also credit the American poet and social critic Gary Snyder—a man with commitments in Buddhism, Native American studies, the outdoors, and alternative social movements—as a major voice of wisdom in the evolution of their ideas.Proponents of deep ecology believe that the world does not exist as a resource to be freely exploited by humans.The ethics of deep ecology hold that a whole system is superior to any of its parts.Regardless of which model is most accurate, deep ecologists contend that massive human economic activity has pushed the biosphere far from its "natural" state through reduction of biodiversity, climate change, and other influences.As a consequence, civilization is causing mass extinction.The notion is based on the idea that the more we expand the self to identify with "others" (people, animals, ecosystems), the more we realize ourselves.Transpersonal psychology has been used by Warwick Fox to support this idea.


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