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Cara Barker received her Masters in Library and Information Sciences from the University of Washington in 2014.She is a Research and Instruction Librarian at Western Carolina University.“Each entry usually contains the following elements: author, year of publication, title, and publishing data—all the information necessary for unique identification and library search” (p. Another way to think of these building blocks, a mnemonic to use in your own construction and review of references, is to remember four interrogatories: Who? A few reference types require more: for instance, year followed by month for papers and poster sessions presented at conferences (, pp. When no year is available or can be ascertained by hook or by crook, this element is maintained by using the abbreviation n.d., for “no date” (p. The name of the edited book in which the chapter resides is not the “what” described here.
APA guidelines for citing electronic resources include this number in the citation whenever possible.
The DOI can generally be found on the first page of scholarly journal articles as well as in the database record for that article.
The is intended to be both explanatory and fairly comprehensive.
Nonetheless, there is no way on earth it could set out examples for every possible type of reference.
Reference List: The reference list at the end of the paper documents literature cited in the paper by providing the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source.
Note that a reference list differs from a bibliography in that it includes only those works actually cited within the paper.
It does, however, offer an approach for the construction of new sorts of references beyond the various types it catalogues. The author component is pretty straightforward: the writer(s) of the article, anthology chapter, or book entire; the editor of a compilation; the producer and director of a motion picture; the writer of a letter, an e-mail, or a blog posting; and so on.
That approach has been specifically illustrated in this blog already, by earlier postings about manufacturing reference entries for Twitter, Facebook, and Wikipedia. Where does this reference come from (or, Where can my reader find this reference)? On the rare occasion when no authorship is attributed and, per APA style, you revert to a title entry (e.g., , p. 205, example 30), this initial whodunnit is still answered. Note that here I am referring to the title of the thing referenced itself, not to any larger “container” in which the specific thing referenced may reside.
There’s a host of new formats (podcasts, tweets, etc.) and a world of nonroutine formats that aren’t necessarily bleeding-edge new (e.g., cuneiform tablets in the British Museum).
All this may sound like a fair amount of ground to cover.